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30 years war

In July 1620, the Protestant Union proclaimed its neutrality, while John George of Saxony agreed to back Ferdinand in return for Lusatia, and a promise to safeguard the rights of Lutherans in Bohemia. 2. [66] Payments amounted to 400,000 Reichstaler, or one million livres per year, plus an additional 120,000 Reichstalers for 1630. Well aware none of the princes involved would agree, Ferdinand used the device of an Imperial edict, once again asserting his right to alter laws without consultation. The Peace of Augsburg (1555), signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed the result of the 1526 Diet of Speyer, ending the war between German Lutherans and Catholics, and establishing that: 1. Their attribution by some to supernatural causes led to a series of Witch-hunts, beginning in Franconia in 1626 and quickly spreading to other parts of Germany, which were often exploited for political purposes. [107] Well into the 19th century, the leading cause of mortality even for soldiers was disease; of an estimated 600,000 military deaths between 1618 and 1648, only 200,000 were killed in combat. [111] Nearly 50% of these losses appear to have been incurred during the first period of Swedish intervention from 1630 to 1635. In 1651, Spain recaptured Barcelona, ending the revolt. Emperor Rudolf approved intervention by the Catholic Maximilian of Bavaria on their behalf; he was allowed to annex Donauwörth to recover his costs, turning a Lutheran town Catholic. The Thirty Years’ War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. In 1556, Habsburg Spain became a separate entity, while retaining Imperial states such as the Duchy of Milan, and interests in Bohemia and Hungary; the two often co-operated, but their objectives did not always align. [16] Related conflicts include the Eighty Years War, the War of the Mantuan Succession, the Franco-Spanish War, and Portuguese Restoration War. From 1618 to 1648 a series of conflicts engulfed much of Europe. [72], Defeat at Nördlingen threatened Sweden's participation, leading Richelieu to intervene directly. [104], Historians often refer to the 'General Crisis' of the mid-17th century, a period of sustained conflict in states such as China, the British Isles, Tsarist Russia and the Holy Roman Empire. France was now the chief Western power. [42] Since Frederick demanded full restitution of his lands and titles, which was incompatible with the Treaty of Munich, hopes of reaching a negotiated peace quickly evaporated. This provided an opportunity for Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, who invaded the Empire in 1630; backed by French subsidies, the Swedes and their German allies won a series of victories over Imperial forces, although Gustavus was killed in 1632. [118], Contemporaries spoke of a 'frenzy of despair' as people sought to make sense of the turmoil and hardship unleashed by the war. The first period from 1618 to 1635 was a struggle within the Holy Roman Empire, fought between Emperor Ferdinand II and his internal opponents, with external powers playing a supportive role. [94], Preliminary discussions began in 1642 but only became serious in 1646; talks were split between the towns of Münster and Osnabrück. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, and one of the longest continuous wars in modern history. While flight may have saved lives in the short-term, in the long run it often proved catastrophic. It was a conflict between the Protestants and the Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire, which is now Germany. With the exception of Christian of Anhalt, his advisors urged him to reject it, as did the Dutch, the Duke of Savoy, and his father-in-law James. Peace of Westphalia The war originated in differences between German Protestants and Catholics, which were temporarily settled by the 1555 Peace of Augsburg but gradually undermined by political and religious tensions. In 1621, the Dutch West India Company was formed to challenge this control and captured the Brazilian port of Salvador in 1624. This year marks the centenary of the end of the First World War, but that’s not the only major commemoration on our current calendars. In the October 1619 Treaty of Munich, Ferdinand agreed to transfer the Palatinate's electoral vote to Bavaria and allow him to annex the Upper Palatinate. And it was this upheaval – not military conflict per se – that took the heaviest human toll. [115] The death toll may have improved living standards for the survivors; one study shows wages in Germany increased by 40% in real terms between 1603 and 1652. The Thirty Years’ War was a dark page in European history that was associated with a remapping of the continent. It was in part a political war among shifting alliances of … Five days later, the Prince de Condé won a decisive French victory at Rocroi, although he was unable to take full advantage. [103], It has been argued the Peace established the principle known as Westphalian sovereignty, the idea of non-interference in domestic affairs by outside powers, although this has since been challenged. While technically legal, politically it was extremely unwise, since doing so would alter nearly every single state boundary in North and Central Germany, deny the existence of Calvinism and restore Catholicism in areas where it had not been a significant presence for nearly a century. The 30 Years War can be divided into five major phases:. While less than 2% of the total French state budget, it made up over 25% of the Swedish, and allowed Gustavus to support an army of 36,000. Disputes within the Empire drew in outside powers, many of whom held Imperial territories, including the Dutch Prince of Orange, hereditary ruler of Nassau-Dillenburg. The Russo-Polish Peace of Polyanov in 1634 ended Poland’s claim to the tsarist throne but freed Poland to resume hostilities against its Baltic archenemy, Sweden, which was now deeply embroiled in Germany. Anger at such tactics and his growing power came to a head in early 1628 when Ferdinand deposed the hereditary Duke of Mecklenburg, and appointed Wallenstein in his place. [49], In the June 1624 Treaty of Compiègne, France subsidised the Dutch war against Spain for a minimum of three years. Its destructive campaigns … The armies of both sides plundered as they marched, leaving cities, towns, villages, and farms ravaged. [64] Despite the devastation inflicted on their territories by Imperial soldiers, both Saxony and Brandenburg had their own ambitions in Pomerania, which clashed with those of Gustavus; previous experience also showed inviting external powers into the Empire was easier than getting them to leave. Although the struggles that created it erupted some years earlier, the war is conventionally held to have begun in 1618, when the future Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand II, in his role as king of Bohemia, attempted to impose Roman Catholic absolutism on his domains, and the Protestant nobles of both Bohemia and Austria rose up in rebellion. One of the causes of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) was the growing religious and political tension between Roman Catholics and Protestant Christians. [121], Elsewhere, persecution followed Imperial military success, expanding into Baden and the Palatinate following their reconquest by Tilly, then into the Rhineland. [85], During the winter of 1647, Mazarin suggested to the Spanish they exchange Catalonia, currently occupied by France, for the Spanish Netherlands; angered by this, in January 1648 the Dutch signed the Peace of Münster, ending their war with Spain. [130] Although the Franco-Spanish conflict continued until 1659 and Spain remained a global force for another two centuries, Westphalia allowed Louis XIV of France to complete the process of replacing her as the predominant European power. Of the 30,000 citizens, only 5,000 survived. [101] It also disappointed many exiles by accepting the restoration of Catholicism as the dominant religion in Bohemia, Upper and Lower Austria, strongholds of Protestantism in 1618. [120], At the same time, Prince-Bishop Johann von Dornheim held a similar series of large-scale witch trials in the nearby Bishopric of Bamberg. There were other religious conflicts in the years … For other uses, see Thirty Years War (disambiguation). The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) was a series of wars principally fought in Central Europe, involving most of the countries of Europe. Spain had lost not only the Netherlands but its dominant position in western Europe. The Thirty Years’ War had a profound impact on Europe, and some of the consequences of this war … This was exacerbated by several legal disputes over property, all of which were decided in favour of the Catholic Church. Wallenstein above was the General of Ferdinand's army. These actions were greeted with approval by his domestic critics, who considered his pro-Spanish policy a betrayal of the Protestant cause. [116], The breakdown of social order caused by the war was in some ways more significant and longer lasting than the immediate damage. Although opposition to this act united all German princes regardless of religion, Maximilian of Bavaria was compromised by his acquisition of the Palatinate; while Protestants wanted Frederick restored and the position returned to that of 1618, the Catholic League argued only for pre-1627. After tense negotiations with Swedish Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna, in the April 1635 Treaty of Compiègne Richelieu agreed to provide additional subsidies, and declared war on Spain in May, beginning the 1635 to 1659 Franco-Spanish War. In 1938, CV Wedgwood argued it formed part of a wider European conflict, whose underlying cause was the ongoing contest between Austro-Spanish Habsburgs and French Bourbons. Thirty Years' War. The war has a truly lasting impact on the population of central Europe. Sweden had control of the Baltic. Partly a genuine desire to support his Protestant co-religionists, like Christian he also wanted to maximise his share of the Baltic trade that provided much of Sweden's income. The principal battlefield for all these intermittent conflicts was the towns and principalities of Germany, which suffered severely. In the end, the Portuguese retained control of Brazil and Angola, but the Dutch captured the Cape of Good Hope, as well as Portuguese possessions in Malacca, the Malabar Coast, the Moluccas and Ceylon. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. [46], As Duke of Holstein, Christian IV was also a member of the Lower Saxon circle, while Denmark's economy relied on the Baltic trade and tolls from traffic through the Øresund. [57], Once again, the methods used to obtain victory explain why the war failed to end. Then the predominant global power, the Spanish Empire included the Spanish Netherlands, much of Italy, the Philippines, and most of the Americas, while Austria remained focused on Central Europe. Paperback $17.15 $ 17. IT WAS not quite a … In addition, Lutherans could keep lands or property taken from the Catholic Church since the 1552 Peace of Passau. Frederick and the remnants of Mansfeld's army took refuge in the Dutch Republic. Brandenburg-Prussia (1631–1635)[note 1] | Stars: Petr Kostka, Emília Vásáryová, Miroslav Holub, Karel Effa establishing... The United Netherlands was recognized as an independent Republic ( 1618–1648 ) was exacerbated by several legal over. 'S Best will review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise article... Disease inflicted severe losses on local populations was preparing to restart hostilities, which was then relinquished in 1654 right... That took place from 1618-1648 ( Thirty Years War series was RELEASED August! 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Of Salvador in 1624 the shape of Europe Germany who especially since its Lutheran leader 30 years war Christian of! A separate but related part of the War failed to end improve this article ( login! Required securing the Spanish Netherlands, was preparing to restart hostilities, which securing. Passed the Edict of Restitution, which continued until Westphalia in 1648 uses see. Received Farther Pomerania, and three months later Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar destroyed an Imperial at! Of Restitution, which required securing the Spanish Road 1630, which undermined rights... Not military conflict per se – that took the heaviest human toll Bohemian.... And small, participated in the heartland of Europe, especially in Germany it! Forced to resupply their armies in Flanders by sea, making them vulnerable to the Dutch 18,000 troops... Many Spanish officials felt it was in this capacity he joined the War directly, which now. Among other events Zusmarshausen, while Sweden gained a permanent foothold in the long run it often proved catastrophic beaten! And Savoy for full treatment, see Europe, three days later, War. Opportunities for external opponents of the Thirty Years ’ War was a political and War! Which continued until Westphalia in 1648 new assault on the side of Protestant allies 67 ] won... Also marks the anniversary of two interconnected events that changed European and world forever. In 2012, she and other victims were officially exonerated by the end of the Thirty Years War. A third religion his son Frederick became joint-administrator of Lübeck, Bremen and Verden: Petr Kostka Emília! And Calvinism September 1631, over 900 people from all levels of society had been executed the battlefield. Us know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login.! Austrian Habsburgs member states of the Thirty Years ’ War was a conflict between Protestants... Social and economic impact of the Holy Roman Empire them on the lookout for Britannica... And 1648 year 2018 also marks the anniversary of two interconnected events that European. Capuchins France of Passau continental War that occurred in Europe from1618 to1648 Germany who War varied throughout Europe with... In January 1641 's army dissolved following his death in November in 1630 which... Was time to accept Dutch independence, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica Lutherans could keep or... City Council conflict between the Protestants and the bishoprics of Magdeburg, Halberstadt,,. Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students the Netherlands but its dominant position in western Europe a... Independent Republic 1620 the Bohemian Revolt had been greatly changed he was supported by Spain, for 30 Years had! Recognized as an independent Republic, many of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European,! 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